Wednesday, 2 November 2011

COOKING TERMS – S

COOKING TERMS – S

Sabayon - A foamy dessert or sauce made of egg yolks whipped with wine or liqueur.
Sacristain (sak ree stan –  A small pastry made of twisted strip of puff paste coated with nuts and sugar.
Saffron - A spice made from the stigmas of the saffron crocus. It comes in either powder form or in dried stands. The best saffron probably comes form Valencia. Iran, Italy, Greece and South American countries also produce it. Saffron should be used carefully as it will give the dish a soapy and bitter flavour if used in excess, it is also the most expensive of all spices. Indian Saffron (not to be confused with tumeric) is redder in colour is considerably cheaper but much less pungent.
Sage – An herb with grayish green leaves, sage has a slightly bitter, musty flavor. Sage is often used in dishes made with pork, cheese, and beans, and in poultry and other stuffings.
Sago – is a starch extracted in the spongy center or pith, of various tropical palm stems, Metroxylon sagu. It is a major staple food for the lowland peoples of New Guinea and the Moluccas, where it is called saksak and sagu. A type of flour, called sago flour, is made from sago. The largest supply of sago comes from the East Indies. Large quantities of sago are sent to Europe and North America for cooking purposes. It is traditionally cooked and eaten in various forms, such as rolled into balls, mixed with boiling water to form a paste, or as a pancake. Sago is often produced commercially in the form of “pearls”. Sago pearls can be boiled with water or milk and sugar to make a sweet sago pudding.[1] Sago pearls are similar in appearance to tapioca pearls and the two may be used interchangeably in some dishes.
Sago pearls – starchy pearls which are by products of sago
Saint-Honore - (1) A dessert made of a ring of cream puffs set on a short dough base and filled with a type of pastry cream. (2) The cream used to fill this dessert, made of pastry cream and whipped egg whites.
Salami - Originally an Italian sausage variety. Now any of a family of boldly seasoned sausages similar to “cervelats,” except that they tend to contain more garlic and are coarser and drier. Salamis are rarely smoked.  Pepperoni is a popular type of salami.  Milano is one of the best salamis
Salisbury Steak - A ground beef patty seasoned with onions and seasonings before it is broiled or fried and served with gravy. Named after Dr. J. H. Salisbury who recommended eating a lot of beef for a wide variety of ailments.
Salmis – a game stew. usually made with feathered game – abbreviated from salmigondis.
Salsa - The Mexican word for “sauce,” salsa may be made with a variety of ingredients and may be fresh or cooked. Green salsa, usually made with tomatillos and green chile, is called “salsa verde.”
Saltpetre – the common name for potassium nitrate. It is used to preserve food especially meat in which it produces a characteristic bright pink colour. It is used to make brine in combination with salt and sugar. Numerous meat products are cured using saltpetre including pastrami and knackwurst
Salt Pork – Salt-cured pork which is essentially a layer of fat. Salt pork is from the pig’s belly or sides. It’s used to flavor beans, greens, and other dishes.
Sausage - Basically, sausage is ground meat with fat, salt, seasonings, preservatives, and sometimes fillers. They may be smoked, fresh, dry or semi-dry, uncooked, partially cooked, or fully cooked. There are thousands of variations of sausage.
Sauté - To cook quickly in a pan on top of the stove until the food is browned. Sautéeing is often done in a small, shallow pan called a sauté pan.
Savarin - A type of yeast bread or cake that is soaked in syrup.
Savory - From the mint family, savory is an herb with a flavor similar to thyme and sage. The word savory may also mean a dish which is piquant (rather than sweet) in flavor.
Scald - To heat a liquid such as milk to just below the boiling point. Scald also means to plunge a food into boiling water to loosen the peel.
Scaling – Weighing, usually of ingredients or of dough’s or batters.
Scallion - Also known as “green onion,: the scallion is a member of the onion family. The underdeveloped bulb and often part of the green tops are used in dishes
Scallop – 1) A dish cooked in a thick sauce, such as “scalloped potatoes.” 2) To form a decorative edging along the raised rim of pie dough or other food. 3) A mollusk with fan-shaped shells. Bay scallops and the larger sea scallops are the types commonly found in supermarkets.
Scant - As in “scant teaspoon,” not quite full.
Scone - A type of biscuit or biscuitlike bread.
Scone Flour –  A mixture of flour and baking powder that is used when very small quantities of baking powder are needed.
Score - To cut shallow slashes into a ham or other food, usually for decoration, to allow excess fat to drain, or to help tenderize.
Scrapple - A dish made from scraps of cooked pork mixed with cornmeal, broth, and seasonings. The cornmeal mixture is cooked, packed into loaf pans, chilled until firm, then cut and fried.
Sear - To brown meat quickly over high heat. Meat may be seared under a broiler or in a skillet on top of the stove.
Seasoned Flour – Flour with added seasoning, which may include salt, pepper, herbs, paprika, spices, or a combination.
Semolina - Durum wheat which is usually more coarse than regular wheat flours. Semolina is used to make pasta, gnocchi, puddings, and a variety of confections.
Sesame Oil - An oil made from sesame seed. Light sesame oil has a nutty flavor and may be used in a variety of ways. The stronger flavored dark sesame oil is most often used as a flavoring in oriental dishes.
Sesame Seeds - Crispy little seeds with a nutty flavor. Sesame seeds may be used in savory dishes or desserts, and are often sprinkled on baked foods.
Shallot – (1)A bulb related to the onion and garlic. Shallots have a mild onion-like flavor. (2) A member of the onion family shallots often have a pinkish tinge and are more delicate in flavour than some onions when cooked. Shaped like cloves of garlic.
Shiitake – A dark brown mushroom with a large cap and meaty flavor.
Shirr – A method of cooking eggs. Whole eggs, covered with cream or milk and sometimes crumbs are typically baked in ramekins or custard cups.
Short - Having a high fat content, which makes the product (such as a cookie or pastry) very crumbly and tender.
Shortbread - A crisp cookie made of butter, sugar, and flour.
Shortcake – Shortcake is a sweet biscuit (in the American sense: that is, a crumbly, baking soda- or baking powder-leavened bread). Shortcake is typically made with flour, sugar, baking powder or soda, salt, butter, milk or cream, and sometimes eggs. The dry ingredients are blended, and then the butter is cut in and mixed (or “combined”) until the mixture resembles cornmeal. The liquid ingredients are then mixed in just until moistened, resulting in a wet batter. The batter is then dropped in spoonfuls onto a baking sheet or poured into a cake form, and baked until set.
Shortening -(1) Any fat used in baking to tenderize the product by shortening gluten strands. (2) A white, tasteless, solid fat that has been formulated for baking or deep-frying.
Shred - To cut food into narrow strips. A grater or food processor may be used to shred. Well-cooked meat can be shredded with forks.
Shrub – An old-fashioned sweetened fruit drink, sometimes spiked with liquor.
Shuck – To remove the shell or husk, such as from an oyster or ear of corn.
Sieve - A mesh or perforated utensil, usually made of metal. Food is pressed or passed through a sieve to remove lumps or strain liquid.
Sift – To pass dry ingredients through a mesh sifter. Sifting breaks coarser particles down or keeps them out of the food. It also incorporates air, which makes ingredients lighter.
Simmer – To cook liquid at about 185°, or just below a boil. Tiny bubbles just begin to break the surface.
Simple Syrup –  A syrup consisting of sucrose and water in varying proportions.
Size of a Walnut – Usually referring to butter, equal to about 2 tablespoons.
Skewer - A thin, pointed metal or wooden rod onto which chunks of food are threaded, then broiled or grilled.
Skim - To remove a substance from the surface of a liquid, usually with a spoon or special utensil. Fat, scum, or foam are skimmed from the surface of liquids.
Skin – To remove the skin of a food, such as poultry or fish, before or after cooking.
Slice – To cut food into similar size flat pieces.
Sliver - To cut a food into thin strips or pieces.
Slow Cooker – Am electric duck oven or casserole used to cook stews and soups slowly. Also known as a crock pot.
Smoke point – The point at which fat breaks down, starts to smoke and gives off an odor. Different fats have different smoke points. The smoking point of animal fats is about 190¼C/375¼C, vegetable fats tend to be about 200¼C/400¼F, peanut and corn oils tend to have a higher smoke point at around 220¼C/425¼F. Take care as fat burst into flames easily if overheated.If it does turn off the heat and cover with a lid,a baking sheet, a fire blanket or a damp teatowel. DO NOT attempt to move the pan or fryer or use water to extinguish.
Snail - Popular since prehistoric times the “escargot”, was eaten by ancient Romans who set aside special vineyards where snails could feed and fatten. Now a national dish of France but available worldwide. Usually served with garlic butter and in the shells.
Soft-Ball Stage - A test for sugar syrup describing the soft ball formed when a drop of boiling syrup is immersed in cold water.
Soft-Crack Stage - A test for sugar syrup describing the hard but pliable threads formed when a drop of boiling syrup is immersed in cold water.
Soft Peaks - A term used to describe beaten egg whites or cream. When the beaters are removed, soft peaks curl over and droop rather than stand straight up.
Soft Wheat - Wheat low in protein.
Sorbet (sor bay) –  French word for “sherbet,”
Sorbetto – Italian word for “sherbet.”
Sorrel - Sorrel is an herb that may be used in cream soups, omelets, breads, and other foods. Sorrel has a somewhat sour flavor because of the presence of oxalic acid.
Soufflé – 1) A sweet or savory dish in which beaten egg whites are incorporated to make it light and airy. (2) A baked dish containing whipped egg whites, which cause the dish to rise during baking. (3) A still-frozen dessert made in a souffl� dish so that it resembles a baked souffl�.
Soup – A liquid food prepared from meat, fish, or vegetable stock combined with various other ingredients and often containing solid pieces.
Sourdough - (1) A yeast-type dough made with a sponge or starter that has fermented so long that it has become very sour or acidic. (2) A bread made with such a dough.
Souse Loaf - Well-cooked pig’s head and feet that are chopped into small pieces, marinated in lime juice, chili pepper and salt, then pressed into a loaf.
Soya – the soya bean is very versatile and nutritious. When milled, becomes very high in protein. Typical Soy Products include: Edamame- The Japanese name for fresh soybeans. The soybeans (either fresh or frozen) are boiled in their pods with salt then chilled and served as an appetizer.
Soy Flour - Dried and ground soybeans. This product can be difficult to digest.
Soy Milk – Soy milk is made simply from dried soybeans and water.  It is an excellent replacement for milk.  Use it fresh to drink, or pour over cereal, or in most recipes that require milk. This is a great, easily digestible way to increase your soy intake.
Soy Sauce – Soy sauce and Tamari are made of soybeans, salt and water. Soy sauce contains a wheat product called koji. Tamari contains no wheat. Soy sauce is used as a flavor enhancer. For the best flavor purchase a high quality soy sauce or Tamari product which has been well aged. Some of the very inexpensive brands may have a very harsh flavor.
Dried & Roasted Soybeans – Soybeans can be dried and roasted and used as a snack food. These can be very difficult to digest.
Spätzle - A form of pasta/noodle paste formed into irregular strips or dumplings which are served as a garnish or as a main dish. The word means “little sparrow”.
Spelt - An ancient variety of wheat. It has small brown grains that adhere strongly to the chaff. Used in some special bread varieties and broths.
Spice - An aromatic substance used to season food.
Sponge - A batter or dough of yeast, flour, and water that is allowed to ferment and is then mixed with more flour and other ingredients to make a bread dough.
Sponge Cake - A type of cake made by whipping eggs and sugar to a foam, then folding in flour.
Sponge Method - A cake mixing method based on whipped eggs and sugar.
Sponge and Dough method
Springform Pan - A round cake pan a little deeper than a standard cake pan. Springform pans have a clamp on the side which releases the sides from the bottom, leaving the cake intact. It’s commonly used for cheesecake.
Spun Sugar - Boiled sugar made into long, thin threads by dipping wires into the sugar syrup and waving them so that the sugar falls off in fine streams.
Squirrel - An abundant, largely tree based rodent. Red and gray squirrels are commonly eaten in the U.S. The gray squirrel is fatter and has a flavor considered by many as superior to the red squirrel. Contrary to popular belief Squirrels only have a strong “gamey” taste if “hung”.
Staling - The change in texture and aroma of baked goods due to the loss of moisture by the starch granules.
Star Anise – A star-shaped dry seed pod with a flavor similar to fennel.
Steep - To soak, in order to extract flavor or soften.
Stew – (1) A method of cooking in which food–usually meat and vegetables–is covered with liquid and cooked slowly for a long period of time. (2)  A slow, moist heat cooking method using a pot with a tight-fitting lid. The meat should be completely covered in liquid. Used for less tender cuts.
Stewing Chicken – A size classification for chicken. A stewing chicken is over 10 months old and weighs from 4 to 6 pounds.
Stiff Peaks - A term describing the consistency of beaten egg whites or cream. When the beaters are removed from the mixture, the points will stand up straight.
Stir frying is an umbrella term used to describe two Chinese cooking techniques for preparing food in a wok: chǎo () and bào (). The term stir-fry was introduced into the English language by Buwei Yang Chao, in her book How to Cook and Eat in Chinese, to describe the chǎo technique. The two techniques differ in their speed of execution, the amount of heat used, and the amount of tossing done to cook the food in the wok. Cantonese restaurant patrons judge a chef’s ability to perform stir frying by the “wok hei” produced in the food. This in turn is believed to display their ability to bring out the qi of the wok. Stir-frying is an Asian technique for cooking meat and vegetables quickly, so that they retain texture and flavor. Stir-frying typically involves a quick sauté over high heat, occasionally followed by a brief steam in a flavored sauce
Stock – (1) The strained liquid in which meat, fish, poultry, or vegetables have been cooked. Stock may also be called “broth” or “bouillon.”   (2) A liquid produced when water, seasonings, bones and/vegetables have been slowly simmered. None is French as fond (meaning foundation)or fumet (fish stock)they are the basis of many soups, sauces and stews.
Stollen – A German yeast bread traditionally made at Christmas time
Stockpot – A deep pot with straight sides and handles used to cook stocks.
Stollen - A type of sweet yeast bread with fruit.
Strain – To pour liquid through strainer or colander to remove solid particles.
Straight Flour -Flour made from the entire wheat kernel minus the bran and germ.
Straw Mushrooms – Small, tan mushrooms with a mild flavor.
Streusel (stray sel)- A crumbly topping for baked goods, consisting of fat, sugar, and flour rubbed together.
Stroganov - A dish of thinly sliced beef (usually fillet, sirloin, tenderloin or top loin), onions, and mushrooms sautéed with a cream based sauce and garnished with sautéed mushrooms. Often served with a rice pilaf. Invented by the chef of Count Paul Stroganoff in the 19th century.
Strong Flour - Flour with a high protein content.
Strudel -(1) A type of dough that is stretched until paper-thin. (2) A baked item consisting of a filling rolled up in a sheet of strudel dough or phyllo dough. (3) A very thin pastry filled and rolled – either sweet or savoury. Originally from Vienna it was reputedly invented by a Hungarian chef who based it on Phyllo pastry. Classically filled with Apples and raisins many other variants are now coomonly used.
Stuffing – Also called “dressing,” stuffing is typically a breadcrumb mixture used to stuff poultry, meat, vegetables, or fish.
Sucrose - The chemical name for regular granulated sugar and confectioners’ sugar.
Sugar Granulated sugar is the most common type of white sugar,it is crystaline and pours easily. British granulated is coarser than American granulated. It is used for making syrups and other heated mixtures, including adding to tea and coffee. Castor or caster sugar is the British name for a fine granulated sugar used in desserts and baking similar to the French “sucre en poudre” or the American superfine. Icing sugar is a powdered sugar mixed with cornflour to prevent it from caking.
Swedish Meatballs - A combination of ground meat (often a combination of beef, pork, or veal), sautéed onions, milk-soaked breadcrumbs, beaten eggs, and seasonings. The mixture is formed into small balls, then sautéed until brown.
Sweet Peppers – A term which usually describes a variety of mild peppers of the Capsicum family. Bell peppers, pimientos, and banana peppers are sweet peppers.
Swiss Roll – A thin sponge cake layer spread with a filling and rolled up.
Swiss Steak - A dish made with a thick cut of steak–usually chuck or round–which is tenderized by pounding, coated with flour and seasoning, and browned. The steak is then topped with tomatoes, onions, and other vegetables, then simmered or baked for about 2 hours.
Swiss Steak - Round or chuck steak that has been tenderized by pounding, coated with flour, and browned on both sides. The meat is then covered in chopped tomatoes, onions, carrots, celery, broth, and seasonings, and baked for approximately two hours.
Syrup Pack - A type of canned fruit containing sugar syrup

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