Wednesday, 2 November 2011

Cooking Terms – Q to R

COOKING TERMS – Q

Quahog - The Native American name for the (East Coast) hard-shelled clam. Quahog is also sometimes used to describe very large clams.
Quesadilla - A flour tortilla filled, folded, then cooked. The filling usually contains shredded cheese, but may also include ground meat, refried beans, etc..
Queso – The Spanish word for cheese.
Quiche – This dish is a pastry crust filled with a savory egg custard which usually includes cheese, seasonings, vegetables, and other ingredients. It’s typically baked in a shallow, straight-sided, fluted baking dish.
Quick Bread - Quick bread is made with baking soda or baking powder, which is why it’s called “quick.”
Quinoa - Quinoa is a protein rich grain which is also high in unsaturated fat and lower in carbohydrates than most grains. It may be used in any dish in place of rice or similar grains.
Quail - A small game bird of the partridge family that resembles a small, plump chicken. Known also as “bobwhites” and “partridges.” The flesh is white and delicately flavored. Most quail today are raised on bird farms.
Quenelle – A dumpling made of meat or fish forcemeat bound with eggs, fat or a panada. Quenelles are usually shaped into a small egg shape or sausage and poached in water or stock.
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COOKING TERMS – R

Ragoût - Ragout is derived from the French verb ragoûter, which means “to stimulate the appetite.” A ragoût is seasoned stew, usually made with meat, poultry, fish, and often vegetables
Ramekin - A small baking dish resembling a soufflé dish, a ramekin usually measures from 3 to 6 inches in diameter and is used for individual servings.
Radicchio - A variety of chicory, radicchio leaves are red with white ribs, and are slightly bitter. The leaves are most often used in salads, but may be grilled, sautéed, or baked.
Ramp - A wild onion which resembles the leek, the ramp has a strong onion-garlic flavor. It may be used as a substitute for leeks, scallions, or onions.
Rasher – A strip of meat, such as bacon. Rasher may also mean a serving of 2 to 3 thin slices of meat.
Reconstitute – To bring a dried or dehydrated product to its original consistency by adding a liquid.
Redeye Gravy - A southern gravy made by adding water and sometimes hot coffee to ham drippings. It’s usually spooned over biscuits which are served with the ham.
Reduce -  1) To boil a liquid until a portion of it has evaporated. Reducing intensifies the flavor and results in a thicker liquid. 2) To thicken or concentrate a sauce by boiling, which lessens the volume and intensifies the flavor.
Render - To extract the fat from meat by cooking over low heat. Rendered fat is strained of meat particles after cooking.
Retarding - Refrigerating a yeast dough to slow the fermentation.
Ribbon - The term describing the texture of egg yolks which have been beaten with sugar. When beaten sufficiently, the mixture forms a thick “ribbon” when the beater is held up over the bowl. The ribbon makes a pattern atop the batter which disappears into the batter after a few seconds.
Rib – A single stalk of a bunch of celery, also called a stalk.
Rice – The most widely cultivated cereal in the world after wheat. Many varieties divide broadly into long grains (such asPatna,Basmati,Surinam) which tend to stay separate when cooked and short grain (Carolina, Arborio,Piedmont) which tend to stick together. Versatile and used in innumeral dishes rice is the staple diet of a large proportion of the worlds population. Rice can be cooked either on the stove (risotto. steamed plain boiled), in the oven (Pilaff) or in a rice cooker pictured below. Generally speaking rice is cooked 1:2 rice:liquid by volume to achieve full absortion of the water or stock. For Rissotto the ratio is 1:3 rice:liquid and the result is a moist creamy mixture.
Rice – (verb) To press cooked food through a utensil called a ricer. The food comes out in “strings” which vaguely resemble rice.
Rich Dough - A dough high in fat, sugar, and/or eggs.
Rillettes – A preparation of pork, rabbit, poultry or goose cooked in lard then pounded into a rough paste and potted. Rillettes are served cold and usually as an hors d’oeuvre, often with toast.
Rind – The tough outer peel of a food.
Risotto - Rice sautéed in butter then cooked and stirred as stock is slowly added in portions. As each addition of stock is absorbed, another is added until the rice is creamy and tender. Vegetables, meat, seafood, herbs, cheese, wine, and other ingredients may be added.
Roast - To cook a food in an open pan in the oven, with no added liquid.
Roaster – A size classification for a chicken about 5 pounds in weight and from 10 to 20 weeks old.
Rock Cornish Hen – A hybrid chicken, Rock Cornish Hens are very small. The average whole hen is from 1 to 1 1/2 pounds.
Roe – Fish eggs. Soft roe is from female fish, and hard (white) roe is from male fish.
Rolled-in Dough - Dough in which a fat has been incorporated in many layers by using a rolling and folding procedure.
Rolling Boil – A very fast boil that doesn’t slow when stirred.
Rolling Pin - A cylindrical kitchen utensil with many uses, which include rolling pastry, crushing bread crumbs, and flattening other foods. Though the most common is hardwood, rolling pins may be made from other materials, such as ceramic, marble, metal, and plastic
Root Vegetable – The “hard” vegetables that are grown underground such as carrots, turnips, swedes
Rosemary – An herb with needle-like leaves, Rosemary has a fresh pine flavor.
Rosette and Rosette Iron - A fried pastry made by dipping a rosette iron into a thin (usually sweet) batter then into hot, deep fat. The fried pastries are then drained and sprinkled with a mixture of cinnamon and sugar. The rosette iron is a metal rod with a heat-proof handle. Decorative shapes–to be dipped in the batter–are attached to the end.
Roti – is generally a South Asian bread made from stoneground wholemeal flour, traditionally known as atta flour, that originated and is consumed inIndia,Pakistan,Bangladesh,Nepal andSri Lanka. It is also consumed in parts of the Southern Caribbean, particularly inGuyana,Suriname,Trinidad and Tobago. Its defining characteristic is that it is unleavened. Indian naan bread, by contrast, is a yeast-leavened bread. Roti and its thinner variant, known as chapati, are an integral part of Indian / Pakistani cuisine. It is particularly popular in Indiaand Pakistan.
Rotisserie - A device which contains a spit with prongs. Food (usually meat or poultry) is impaled on the the spit, fastened securely then cooked. Most rotisseries are motorized so they automatically turn the food as it cooks.
Roulade – 1) A thin piece of meat which is stuffed with a filling, secured with picks or string, then browned and baked 2) A rolled up preparation of meat, sponge, vegetables, fish which is usually stuffed.
Rounding - A method of molding a piece of dough into a round ball with a smooth surface or skin.
Roux – 1) A mixture of fat and flour which is blended and cooked slowly over low heat until the desired consistency or color is reached. Roux is used as a base for thickening sauces. 2)  A mixture of butter and flour cooked over low heat. Used for thickening a sauce and soups. The roux can be prepared in three ways.
White-where the mixture is barely cooked and takes on no clor. This is used to produce a white sauces called Béchamel.
Fawn - where the roux is cooked for a few minutes so that it starts to color slightly, this is used to make white sauces – Veloute
Brown - where the roux is cooked to the colour of white coffee and is used to make brown sauces such as Espagnole. see also Boiling
Royal Icing - An icing which hardens when dried. Royal icing is made with confectioners’ sugar, egg whites, flavoring, and sometimes food coloring.
Rub – To blend ingredients by rubbing through the fingers, more often called rubbing in. A blend of herbs and spices that coats the surface of meat used to add flavor.
Rubbing in – the method of combining fat into flour for crumble toppings, shortcrust pastry, biscuits, and scones.
Rye Blend – A mixture of rye flour and hard wheat flour.

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