Wednesday, 2 November 2011

COOKING TERMS – P

COOKING TERMS – P

Paella – A Spanish dish consisting of rice, saffron, a variety of meat and shellfish, garlic, onions, peas, tomatoes, and other vegetables. It’s named for the wide, shallow pan it’s cooked in.
Pain dEpice (pan day peece) –  A type of gingerbread. French name means “spice bread.”
Palmier (palm yay) –  A small pastry or petit four sec made of rolled, sugared puff pastry cut into slices and baked.
Panada – A paste used to bind and thicken. Made from flour (choux paste), frangipane, bread, potato, or rice, panadas are used in forcemeats, terrines and quenelles.
Pan-Broil / grill- To broil / grill in a skillet on top of the stove with very little fat. During the cooking, drippings are poured off as they form.
Pan fry – A quick, dry heat cooking method using a pan with a small amount of oil. No lid is used. Used for thinner cuts. Also called sautéing.
Pancetta - An Italian bacon, pancetta is cured with salt and spices but is not smoked. An Italian cured pork with spices which is rolled. Pancetta can be eaten raw and is often used as a flavouring agent in sauces, pasta fillings, roasts and vegetables.
Panforte – A dense, flat Italian cake filled with hazelnuts, almonds, honey, candied citron and citrus peel, cocoa and spices.
Panettone – is a type of sweet bread loaf originally from Milan (in Milanese it is called panaton),[2] usually prepared and enjoyed for Christmas and New Year in Italy, Malta, Brazil, Germany and Switzerland, and is one of the symbols of the city of Milan. It has a cupola shape, which extends from a cylindrical base and is usually about 12-15 cm high for a panettone weighing 1 kg. Other bases may be used, such as an octagon, or a frustum with star section shape more common to pandoro. It is made during a long process that involves the curing of the dough, which is acidic, similar to sourdough. The proofing process alone takes several days, giving the cake its distinctive fluffy characteristics. It contains candied orange, citron, and lemon zest, as well as raisins, which are added dry and not soaked. Many other variations are available such as plain or with chocolate . It is served in slices, vertically cut, accompanied with sweet hot beverages or a sweet wine, such as Asti or Moscato d’Asti. In some regions of Italy, it is served with crema di mascarpone, a cream made from mascarpone, eggs, sometimes dried or candied fruits, and typically a sweet liqueur such as amaretto; if mascarpone cheese is unavailable, zabaglione is sometimes used as a substitute.
Papaya - Native to North America, the papaya is a large fruit which is golden yellow when ripe. Ripe papaya has an exotic sweet-tart flavor. The fruit is sometimes called pawpaw.
Paprika – A seasoning powder made from red peppers. The flavor can range from mild to hot.
Paratha – an Indian flat-bread originating fromIndia.  It is one of the most popular unleavened flat bread in the Indian,Pakistan, and Bengal Cuisines and is usually made by pan frying a whole-wheat dough on a tava, traditionally.
Parboil - To boil a food briefly, until partially done. A food might be parboiled before adding it to faster-cooking ingredients to insure all ingredients are evenly cooked.
Parchment Paper - A heavy moisture and grease-resistant paper used to line baking pans and wrap foods to be baked.
Pare – To cut the skin from a food, usually with a short knife called a paring knife.
Pareve - A Jewish term which describes food made without dairy or animal ingredients. According to Jewish dietary laws, animal food can’t be eaten at the same meal with dairy food, but pareve food may be eaten with either.
Parfait - (1) A type of sundae served in a tall, thin glass. (2) A still-frozen dessert made of egg yolks, syrup, and heavy cream.
Paris-Brest –  A dessert consisting of a ring of baked �clair paste filled with cream. A ring of choux pastry filled with a cream usualyy praline flavoured and covered with shredded Almonds. The name of this cake comes fromthe route of theParis toBrest bicycle race on which the original pastry shop was found that produced it.
Parma Ham – The famous sweet italian ham which is dry cured and pressed. It is usually eaten raw accompanied by fruit or delicate vegetables.
Parmesan-Reggiano – The best known italian cheese made in the old Duchy of Parma. It is aged at least two years and makes an excellent cheese for cooking as it melts without running or becoming rubbery.
Parsley – An herb with a sweet and fresh flavor, parsley is usually available the fresh or dried.
Pasta - Pasta may refer to any of a wide variety of noodles from a variety of countries. Italian pasta is usually made with a dough of durum or semolina wheat flour, liquid, and sometimes egg. Pasta made with semolina flour is generally superior, since it doesn’t absorb too much water and stays somewhat firm when cooked al dente.
Pasteurize – To kill bacteria by heating liquids to moderately high temperatures only briefly. French scientist Louis Pasteur discovered the solution while he was researching the cause of beer and wine spoilage.
Pastillage A sugar paste used for decorative work, which becomes very hard when dry
Pastrami - A seasoned preserved meat made from dry-cured salt beef . The seasonings can include cloves, garlic, cinnamon, ground pepper, red peppers, allspice and coriander seeds. Weel known served as a rye bread sandwich.
Pastry Bag - A cone-shaped bag with openings at both ends. Food is placed into the large opening then squeezed out the small opening which may be fitted with a decorator tip. It has a variety of uses, including decorating cakes and cookies, forming pastries, or piping decorative edgings. Bags may be made of cloth, plastic, or other materials.
Pastry Blender – A kitchen utensil with several u-shaped wires attached to a handle. It’s used to cut solid fat (like shortening or butter) into flour and other dry ingredients in order to evenly distribute the fat particles.
Pastry Brush – A brush used to apply glaze or egg wash to breads and other baked goods either before or after baking.
Pastry Cream – 1)A thick custard sauce containing eggs and starch.  2) a cream used as a filling for pastry products usually associated with a confectione’rs custard.
Pastry Flour –  A weak flour used for pastries and cookies.
Pastry Wheel – A utensil with a cutting wheel attached to a handle. It’s used to mark and cut rolled-out dough, and may have a plain or decorative edge.
Pâté - An appetizer, pâté usually consists of seasoned, finely ground or strained meat, poultry, or fish. pâté is usually cooked in a crust or mold (may be called terrine) and is often served with crackers or toast.
Pate a Choux (pot ah shoo) - Eclair paste.
Pate Feuillete (pot foo va fay)-  French name for puff pastry.
Patent flour - A fine grade of wheat flour milled from the inner portions of the kernel.
Patty – A thin, round piece of food, such as a hamburger patty or a peppermint patty.
Pectin - Pectin is a natural substance used to thicken jams, jellies, and preserves. Pectin is naturally present in fruits, but most don’t have enough to jell. The alternative is to cook the mixture until it’s reduced to the desired consistency. Pectin will only work when combined with a specific balance of sugar and acid.
Pecorino Romana – Italy’s oldest cheese. A hard sheep’s milk cheese, it is much sharper and stronger than parmesan and tends to crumble more.
Peppercorn - Peppercorns are small berries from a vine plant. The black peppercorn is picked when it is almost ripe, then dried. Whole ground or cracked, black peppercorns produce our everyday black pepper. The milder white pepper is made from the dried inner kernel of the ripe berry.
Petit Four - A delicate cake or pastry small enough to be eaten in one or two bites (small bite-size cakes) Petits fours are usually square or diamond-shaped. They’re typically coated with icing and decorated.
Petit Four Glace –  An iced or cream-filled petit four.
Petit Four Sec - An uniced or unfilled petit four (“sec” means “dry”), such as a small butter cookie or palmier.
Phyllo - A Greek pastry, phyllo is made up of tissue-thin layers of dough. The dough is used for dishes such as baklava and spanikopita. It can usually be found frozen in supermarkets. Phyllo is sometimes spelled filo.
Phyllo (filo) pastedough – A tissue thin sheet of dough of Greek origin made by rolling and pulling a sheet of pliable dough and used to make leaved pastry dishes. It is similar to the softer strudel paste. Phyllo can be made or purchased fresh or frozen. Its best known use is in Baklava but is now commonly used in many other dishes.
Physalis - also known as Cape Gooseberry, strawberry tomato, winter cherry or love-in-a-cage – I don’t know why its got so many names! These fruit are originally from Peru, yellow to red in color and often wrapped in its fine wafer thin brown leaves/bladder (calyx). Often used for their presentation value to decorate sweets. The fruit has a pleasant tart flavor and is often used in preserves and compotes, fruit salads, sorbets and ice cream.
Pie – 1. A baked food composed of a pastry shell filled with fruit, meat, cheese, or other ingredients, and usually covered with a pastry crust. 2. A layer cake having cream, custard, or jelly filling.
Pie crust / pie shell – pastry used to hold pie fillings
Picadillo - A Spanish dish made up of ground pork and beef, tomatoes, garlic, onions, and other foods, depending on the region. In Mexico, picadillo is used as a stuffing.
Pickle - To preserve food in a vinegar mixture or seasoned brine. Cucumbers, cauliflower, onions, baby corn, and and watermelon rind are some of the most popular foods to pickle.
Pickling Spice - A combination of spices usually including mustard seed, bay leaves, cinnamon, pepper, allspice, ginger, turmeric, and cardamom. Pickling spices are used primarily for pickling foods, but may also be used to season certain dishes.
Pilaf - Also known as pilau, pilaf is typically a seasoned rice (or other grain) dish in which the rice is sautéed before the liquid and other ingredients are added.
Pimiento or Pimento - A large red, sweet pepper. Pimientos are usually found diced in cans and jars and are added to dishes to enhance the color and flavor.
Pinch - A small amount of a dry ingredient, generally around 1/16 of a teaspoon. It’s about as much as can be held between the tip of the thumb and forefinger.
Pine Nuts - The blanched seeds from pine cones. Other names are: Indian nut, piñon, pignoli, and pignolia.
Pipe / Piping – (1) To squeeze icing or other soft food through a pastry bag to make a design or decorative edible edging.  (2) A way in which cakes and desserts are decorated or filled or the method by which a choux pastry is placed onto a baking sheet.  This is achieved by putting cream, icing, fillings, or any other mixture in a bag with nozzle/tip attached  or any improvised piping materials (ex. paper formed into cone) and then slowly forcing through the nozzle and piping it onto the cakes, pastries, breads, or baking sheet
Piping Jelly - A transparent, sweet jelly used for decorating cakes.
Piquant – A term which generally means a tangy flavor.
Piquante Sauce – A sauce made with shallots, white wine vinegar, gherkins, parsley, and a variety of herbs and seasonings.
Pit – To remove the seed or stone of a fruit or berry.
Pita - A round, Middle Eastern flat bread made from white or whole wheat flour. When a pita is split, the pocket may be filled to make a sandwich.
Pithiviers (fee tee vyay) – A cake made of puff pastry filled with almond cream.
Pizza -  1) A baked pie of Italian origin consisting of a shallow breadlike crust covered with toppings such as seasoned tomato sauce, cheese, sausage, or olives. 2) a dish of Italian origin consisting of a baked disc of dough covered with cheese and tomatoes, usually with the addition of mushrooms, anchovies, sausage, or ham
Poach – To cook food in liquid, at or just below the boiling point. For eggs, meat, or fish, the liquid is usually water or a seasoned stock; fruit is generally poached in a sugar syrup.
Poblano pepper – A member of the pepper family. The peppers are dark green in color and vary in heat intensity from medium to hot. Dried poblano peppers are called ancho peppers.
Polenta - A mush made from cornmeal, polenta may be eaten hot or cooled and fried. Polenta is a staple of northern Italy.
Pone – A round, flat food, such as corn pone.
Poppy Seed or Poppyseed – Tiny bluish-gray seeds of the poppy plant. Poppy seeds are often sprinkled on food, used as a filling, or added to a variety of foods, such as cakes, breads, and salad dressings.
Porcini – A large wild mushroom with a smooth cap and thick stem. Porcini mushrooms have an earthy flavor.
Portobello mushroom – A meaty, delicious mushroom usually 4-6 inches wide. For preparation, remove and discard dark gills from the underside of the mushroom cap with a spoon.
Pot Liquor, or Pot Likker – The liquid left after cooking greens, vegetables, or other food. It’s traditionally served with cornbread in the South.
Poultry Seasoning - A blend of herbs and spices, poultry seasoning usually contains sage, celery seed, thyme, savory, marjoram, onion, and pepper.
Praline -A confection or flavoring made of nuts and caramelized sugar.  Either asweet consisting of an almond coated with caramilsed sugar or a preparation consisting of crushed Almonds and Hazlenuts that have been coated in caramalised suger. which is used for flavouring ice creams and as a filling in pther seets and chocolates
Prata / Roti Prata – is a Singaporean delicacy which is a pancake served with curry or, more rarely, with sugar or condensed milk. In addition, although consumed at any time of the day by some locals
Preheat - To allow the oven or pan to get to a specified temperature before adding the food to be cooked.
Preserve - To prepare foods for long storage. Some ways to preserve food are drying, refrigeration, freezing, canning, curing, pickling, and smoking.
Preserves – A thick cooked mixture of whole or cut up fruit, sugar, and usually pectin.
Pressure Cooker - A cooking pot made to cook food under pressure. The pressure cooker has a locking lid and a valve system to regulate the internal pressure. Cooking time may be reduced by as much as 50% without destroying the nutritional value of the food.
Prick – To make small holes in the surface of a food, usually using the tines of a fork. Pie crust is usually pricked.
Primavera – Italian for “spring style,” this term refers to the use of fresh vegetables as a seasoning or garnish in a dish.
Profiterole –  1) A small puff made of �clair paste. Often filled with ice cream and served with chocolate sauce 2) Small choux pastry buns. They can be either sweet or savoury. Various filling are used such as pastry cream. chantilly cream, jam, ice cream, game purée and cheese mixtures. The word profit meant small gift.
Proof - 1) To “prove” yeast is alive by dissolving it in warm water and setting it aside in a warm place for 5 to 10 minutes. If it swells and becomes bubbly, it is alive. 2) Proof is an indication of the amount of alcoholic content in a liquor. In the U.S., proof is twice the percentage of alcohol. If a liquor is labeled 80 proof, it contains 40% alcohol
Proofing – The term used in bread making when the bread is allowed to rise a second time after it has been kneaded once and then shaped before it is baked.
Prosciutto - The Italian word for ham, prosciutto describes a ham which has been seasoned, salt cured, and dried.
Puff Pastry - A rich, multilayered French pastry made with butter, flour, eggs, and water. Puff pastry is made by placing chilled butter pats between layers of dough, then rolling the dough, folding it in thirds and letting it rest. The process is repeated several times, producing a dough with hundreds of layers of dough and butter. When baked, the moisture in the butter creates steam, which causes the dough to separate into flaky layers.
Pulled Sugar - Sugar that is boiled to the hard-crack stage, allowed to harden slightly, then pulled or stretched until it develops a pearly sheen.
Pullman Loaf -A long, rectangular loaf of bread.
Punching - A method of expelling gases from fermented dough.
Pulverize - To reduce to powder or dust by pounding, crushing or grinding.
Pumpernickel Flour – A coarse, flaky meal made from whole rye grains.
Puree - To blend, process, sieve, or mash a food until it’s very smooth and has the consistency of baby food. A food made into a smooth pulp, usually by being ground or forced through a sieve.

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