Tuesday, 1 November 2011

COOKING TERMS – H

COOKING TERMS – H

Half and Half – A mixture of half cream, half milk. The fat content is between 10 and 12 percent.
Ham – a hind leg of pork / hog cured in various ways.  The leg is cut from the carcase and brined separately.  Ham may be cooked, raw, or smoked.  The French tem Jambon refers to ham and also to a leg of fresh pork
Ham Hock – The lower portion of a hog’s hind leg, usually used to flavor soups, greens, beans, and stews.
Harissa – a very hot pepper sauce from north Africa, made from a puree of olive oil, chillie, garlic, coriander, caraway, or cumin and several other spices
Hash – A dish made up of chopped potatoes, meat, and other vegetables. Hash is often made using leftovers.
Hard-Ball Stage – A test for sugar syrup describing the rigid ball formed when a drop of boiling syrup is immersed in cold water.
Hard-Crack Stage – A test for sugar syrup describing brittle threads formed when a drop of boiling syrup is immersed in cold water.
Hard Sauce –  A flavored mixture of confectioners’ sugar and butter; often served with steamed puddings.
Hard Wheat -Wheat high in protein.
Hartshorn – Also known as ammonium bicarbonate, hartshorn was commonly used before baking powder and baking soda were readily available. It may still be purchased in drugstores, but must be ground before using.
Headspace – The amount of space to leave at the top of a container to allow for expansion of food when frozen or processed.
Hearth Bread - A bread that is baked directly on the bottom of the oven, not in a pan.
Herb – any of various usually aromatic plants, such as parsley, rue, and rosemary, that are used in cookery (as seasonings) and medicine
Herb mincer / roller – a devise for chopping up herbs, has the same effect as a mezzaluna on a small scale.
Herbes de Provence- A mixture of dried herbs, usually a combination of basil, marjoram, rosemary, sage, lavender, summer savory, thyme, and fennel seed.
Heavy Pack - A type of canned fruit or vegetable with very little added water or juice.
Hermit – An old-fashioned chewy cookie made with chopped fruits, nuts, and molasses or brown sugar.
High-Ratio – (1) Term referring to cakes and cake formulas mixed by a special method and containing more sugar than flour. (2) The mixing method used for these cakes. (3) Term referring to certain specially formulated ingredients used in these cakes, such as shortening. High-Ratio Method: See Two-Stage Method.
Hog Jowl – The cheek of a hog. Hog jowl is usually cut into squares before being cured and smoked. It may be refrigerated for up to one week if tightly wrapped. It may be cut into strips and fried like bacon or used to flavor stews, beans, and greens.
Hoisin Sauce – A Chinese sauce that literally means seafood sauce. It is a thick reddish sauce of soybeans, spices, and garlic used in east Asian cookery
Hollandaise Sauce – An emulsified sauce made from egg yolks and butter, usually flavored with lemon juice or vinegar.
Hominy – Dried white or yellow corn kernels from which the hull and germ have been either chemically or mechanically removed. Hominy is often served as a side dish. When ground, hominy is called grits.
Homogenized Milk - Milk that has been processed so that the cream does not separate out.
Hoppin’ John – A dish of black-eyed peas cooked with salt pork or other fatty meat and seasonings. Hoppin’ John is thought to have originated with African slaves on Southern plantations. The dish is traditionally served on New Year’s day for good luck.
Hors d’Oeuvre- Small, bite-size foods usually served before a meal or as a party appetizer.
Huckleberry – A wild, dark blue berry which resembles the blueberry. Huckleberries have hard seeds in the center and a thicker skin than the blueberry. They are good eaten plain or in pies, muffins, and other baked goods.
Hummus or Hoummos – a dish made from chick peas and tahini usually flavoured with garlic, lemon juice, and olive oil served with pita bread, salads, or crudités as a starter or snack
Hushpuppy – A small, fried cornmeal dumpling, usually flavored with chopped green onion. Hushpuppies are a traditional accompaniment to fried catfish. The word hushpuppy is thought to have come from the fact that, to keep dogs quiet, civil war-era cooks would toss scraps of fried batter to them with the admoniton, “Hush, puppy!”
HydrogenationA process that converts liquid oils to solid fats (shortenings) by chemically bonding hydrogen to the fat molecules.

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