Tuesday, 1 November 2011

COOKING TERMS – C

COOKING TERMS – C


Cake Flour-  A fine, white flour made from soft wheat.
Cajun – A cuisine with both Southern and French influences.
Cajun seasoning – A dried mixture of Cajun spices found in the spice section of the grocery store
Caper – Capers are unopened flower buds which come from the caper bush. They are usually pickled, and are peppery in flavor.
Capocollo - A specialty of theParma region ofItaly, capocollo is a sausage made from pork shoulder and flavoured with sweet red peppers. It is pressed (rather than chopped), put into casings, and air dried
Capon - The term for a castrated chicken that is fed a special diet until it is slaughtered at the age of 6 to 9 months
Cardamon – the dried unripened fruit of a plant from the ginger family, the pods are perfumed and rich in flavour
Caramel – obtained by heating sugar at a very low heat until it turns liquid and deep brown in color.  This is used in dishes such as crème caramel, which is baked in bain-marie
Caramelization-  The browning of sugars caused by heat.
Caramelize – To sprinkle food with a small amount of sugar and saute or grill until browned. To heat sugar until it forms a caramel
Caraway Seeds – An aromatic spice which is a seed of a member of the parsley family with warm aniseedy undertones, and  with a pungent, licorice flavor. Available whole or ground
Cardamom – This spice, from the ginger family, has a sweet, ginger-like flavor. Available as seeds or ground.
Carve – To slice meat across the grain for serving.
Casserole – This is actually the name of the baking dish. Casserole recipes may include vegetables, meats, grains, or other combination of ingredients, usually bound by a thick sauce or cream soup
Cast Sugar – Sugar that is boiled to the hard crack stage and then poured into molds to harden
Cayenne – A small, hot, chile pepper, usually used ground or in pepper sauces.
Celsius Scale -The metric system of temperature measurement, with 0� C at the freezing point of water and 100� C at the boiling point of water
Cep – The edible boletus mushroom with a large bulbous stalk. Always better when young can be eaten raw in salads cut into thin slices but are great cooked in stea=ws, omelettes or cooked in a white sauce. Dried they add a distib=nctive flavour to sauces. In Italy they are known as porcini.
Challah - A rich egg bread, often made as a braided loaf.
Chapati – is an Indian (fromIndia) flat unleavened bread that is made of whole wheat flour and cooked on a tava (flat skillet)
Charlotte - (1) A cold dessert made of Bavarian cream or other cream in a special mold, usually lined with ladyfingers or other sponge products. (2) A hot dessert made of cooked fruit and baked in a special mold lined with strips of bread.
Chemical Leavener - A leavener such as baking soda, baking powder, or baking ammonia, which releases gases produced by chemical reactions
Chiffon Cake –  A light cake made by the chiffon method.
Chiffon Method - A cake mixing method involving the folding of whipped egg whites into a batter made of flour, egg yolks, and oil.
Chiffon Pie - A pie with a light, fluffy filling containing egg whites and, usually, gelatin.
Chiffonade – finely shredded leaf vegetables or herbs.
Chili Powder – A spicy blend of ground chile peppers and spices.
Chitterlings - The small intestines of animals, usually pigs. They are cleaned, simmered, then served with a sauce or used as a sausage casing. Chitterlings are also added to soups or battered and fried.
Chive- A relative of onion and garlic, chives have and a mild onion flavor. Available fresh and dried.
Chocolate Liquor - Unsweetened chocolate, consisting of cocoa solids and cocoa butter.
Chop – To cut food into pieces. Can range from small to large in size.
ChorizoChorizo - A spicy, highly seasoned, coarsely ground pork sausage flavored with garlic, chili, and other spices. Widely used in Mexican and Spanish cooking.
Choux / Choux Paste – A pastry whose uncooked dough is rather like a glossy batter, which is piped into small balls onto a baking sheet and baked until light and airy.  It is  made by boiling water or milk and butter, adding flour, beating in eggs. Choux Pastry can be filled with cream or any savoury fillings.  It is used to make profiteroles, eclairs and Paris Brest
Christmas Pudding –  A dark, heavy, steamed pudding made of dried and candied fruits, spices, beef suet, and crumbs.
Chunks – Usually bite-size pieces, about 1-inch or larger.
Chutney – A condiment which usually contains fruit or vegetables, sugar, vinegar and spices.
Cilantro – A pungent, leafy herb resembling flat-leaf parsley. Cilantro is sometimes called Chinese parsley, Coriander, or Mexican parsley. It is available fresh or dried.
Cinnamon – A spice made from the curled inner bark of a species of laurel
Clarified butter – Unsalted butter which has been melted and skimmed of milk solids. To heat butter until melted and milk solids rise to the top. Skim off milk solids, or use gravy separator before using butter for sautéing. This helps keep butter from burning.
Clear Flour –  A tan-colored wheat flour made from the outer portion of the endosperm.
Clove – One small section of a segmented bulb, such as garlic. Also a spice.
Coagulation - The process by which proteins become firm, usually when heated.
Cobbler – A baked  fruit dessert similar to a pie but without a bottom crust.  The dessert dish consisting of fruit filling covered with a sweet biscuit or piecrust dough.
Cocoa: The dry powder that remains after cocoa butter is pressed out of chocolate liquor.
Cocoa Butter: A white or yellowish fat found in natural chocolate.
Compote: Fruit cooked in a sugar syrup
Confectioners’ Sugar: Sucrose that is ground to a fine powder and mixed with a little cornstarch to prevent caking.
Conserve – Combination of fruits, cooked with sugar. Nuts and raisins are frequently added.
Core – To remove the inedible center portion of a fruit or vegetable
Coriander – A delicately flavoured herb with a spicy 
Coulis (koo lee)-  A fruit or vegetable puree, used as a sauce. A liquid purée of fruit, vegetables or seafood. Coulis can be used as sauce or are added to soups and sauces to give body and flavour. They are named after a couloir which is a type of funnel.
Cornflour / cornstarch – used to thicken consistency and can also be used in meringue making to prevent the meringue from becoming hard and brittle and to enhance its chewiness
Courgettes - baby marrows are available in many varieties, shapes and sizes. The colour varies from green to yellow and the shape from long and thin to spherical. The flavour is watery and earthy. The tenderest, sweetest courgettes are those about 10-15cm (4-5 inches) long. Courgette are prepared by slicing off the top and end, then either leaving whole for roasting or stuffing, slicing for stir fries and soups, dicing or making matchsticks for casseroles. They can be grated or julienned and tossed in lemon juice and served raw as a salad. Try steaming in slices and tossed in butter with chopped mint.
Court Bouillon – A savory bouillon made from fish stock. Court bouillon is used for poaching fish and as a base for fish sauces
Couscous- a pasta made from durum wheat which resembles grain. The finished dish is served with a tagine and/or harissa  
CouvertureNatural, sweet chocolate containing no added fats other than natural cocoa butter; used for dipping, molding, coating, and similar purposes.
Crab boil – A mixture of herbs and spices, used to flavor the water for seafood.
Cracklings – Crispy cooked pieces of fatty meat, such as salt pork. Sometimes added to Southern cornbread.
Cream of Tartar – an acid raising agent (potassium hydrogen tartrate) often present in both self-raising flour and baking powder.  Activates the alkali component of baking powder. In food, potassium bitartrate is used for: Stabilising egg whites, increasing their heat tolerance and volume;  Preventing sugar syrups from  crystallizing; and Reducing discolouration of boiled vegetables
Creaming - The process of beating fat and sugar together to blend them uniformly and to incorporate air.  By creaming the fat in the cake mixtures, air is incorporated into the fairly high fat content.  It thus lightens the texture of cakes and puddings.
Creaming Method - A mixing method that begins with the blending of fat and sugar; used for cakes, cookies, and similar items.
Creme Anglaise (krem awng glezz) - A light vanilla-flavored custard sauce made of milk, sugar, and egg yolks.
Creme Brulee - A rich custard with a brittle top crust of caramelized sugar. French name means “burnt cream.”
Creme Caramel - A custard baked in a mold lined with caramelized sugar, then unmolded.
Crepe (krep)- A very thin French pancake, often served rolled around a filling.
Crepes Suzette –  French pancakes served in a sweet sauce flavored with orange.
Crépine – A thin membrane veined with fat that encloses the stomach of animals – used to make crépinettes. Also known as cawl or toilette, it is used to hold together ingredients in certain dishes such as terrines, faggots, stuffed cabbage leaves.
Crimping – the fluted effect used for the decoration on pies or tarts, created by pinching the edge crust with the thumb and index finger of your one hand and gently pushing agains them with the index finger of your other hand
Croissant (krwah sawn) - A flaky, buttery yeast roll shaped like a crescent and made from a rolled-in dough.
Croquettes – Ground or minced cooked food, such as chicken or salmon, bound with a thick sauce, formed into patties or balls, then fried.
Crosne or Chinese or Japanese artichoke also known as chorogi is a spiral shaped tuber that  look a bit like giant caterpillars, though they taste similar to Jerusalem artichokes. Preapare by rubbing with coarse salt to remove the skin or cook unpeeled.They’re popular in France and can sometimes be obtained from oriental and asian Markets.
Crouton – Hard toasted or fried pieces of bread used to garnish.
Crudités – Raw vegetables and or fruits served as an appetiser. These are generally cut into sticks or batons or thinly sliced and seved with dips or cold sauces. Carrots, celery, peppers, red cabbage, mushrooms, fennel, fresh broad beans, radishes, sliced of avocado, or tomatoes amongst others can be used.
Crumb – the internal texture of a cake or bread as defined by the air pockets
Crush- To mash food or bruise leaves of fresh herbs to release flavors.
Cube- To cut into cubes, about 1/2- to 1-inch. Cube may also mean to tenderize meat with a tenderizing mallet or utensil which makes “cube” imprints.
Cumin – A spice frequently used in Latin American, Oriental, and Indian cooking. Also known as jeera, cumin is the seed of a plant similar to cow parsley and a distinctive spicy warm rather than hot flavor Cumin has a warm, salty-sweet flavor similar to caraway.
Curdling – When the milk separates from a sauce through acidity or excessive heat.  This can also happen to creamed cake mixtures that have separated due to the eggs being too cold or added too quickly.
Cure – To preserve food–usually meat or fish–by pickling, smoking, drying, salting, or storing in a brine.
Curry Powder – A blend of up to 20 herbs and spices, curry powder is widely used in Indian cooking.
Custard – A liquid that is thickened or set by the coagulation of egg protein.
Cut in- To incorporate solid fat into dry ingredients using a pastry blender or knives

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