Thursday, 19 May 2011

Nutrition – Cholesterol Guidelines

This is an article posted in the website www.clevelandclinic.org  the direct link for the original article is this http://my.clevelandclinic.org/heart/prevention/nutrition/atp3.aspx .

Just sharing some important guidelines on the amount of nutrition an
individual must take on a daily basis to help lower down his/her
cholesterol.

- Foodformylove(19May2011)

Bringing the Science to your Dinner Table

The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)
Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) guidelines for cholesterol reduction
include the latest information known to date on how to optimally reduce
your risk for coronary heart disease.


It is estimated that millions of people are at much greater risk
for heart disease than previously realized. This means more and more
people will be walking away from their doctor’s office with a
cholesterol-lowering drug prescription in hand (it is estimated
prescription drug needs will increase from 13 to 36 million).
Medications aside, what these new guidelines also so vividly illustrate
is the growing epidemic of poor dietary habits, obesity, hypertension,
hyperlipidemia and sedentary lifestyles that lead to the number one
killer inAmericatoday.


Because of this the ATP intensified the use of nutrition,
physical activity and weight control in the treatment of elevated
cholesterol and titled it the “Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes” (TLC)
treatment plan. Even if you come out with a gold star on your
cholesterol level and overall risk for coronary heart disease, most of
us would surely benefit from implementing these guidelines.


The following table can help you implement the guidelines into
practical terms you and your family can enjoy and reap heart-healthy
benefits:




New TLC guidelines:



Saturated Fat – less than 7% of total calories
  • Why? What does this mean?: Diets high in
    saturated fats are linked to increased risk of coronary heart disease.
    Saturated fats are thought to have the most potent cholesterol raising
    potential.
  • Examples: Fatty cuts of meat, skin on poultry,
    egg yolks, lard, butter, whole milk dairy products, palm kernel oil,
    palm oil, coconut oil, desserts and sweets, fried foods and most snack
    foods and fast foods made with hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated
    fats. These fats are generally solid at room temperature.

Trans Fat – as little as possible
  • Why? What does this mean?: Trans fatty acids
    are formed when a liquid fat is turned into a solid one; a process
    called hydrogenation. Research indicates that trans fat have the same
    cholesterol-raising effect that saturated fats do. Therefore we
    recommend keeping your trans fat intake as low as possible.
  • Examples: To keep your trans fat intake down,
    limit foods with the following ingredients: partially hydrogenated oil,
    hydrogenated oil, stick margarine and shortening. Limit your intake of
    fried foods, cakes, pies and other foods containing the above. Foods
    containing trans fat are also solid at room temperature.

Polyunsaturated Fat – up to 10% of total calories
  • Why? What does this mean? :D
    iets moderate in polyunsaturated fats are generally recommended.
    Substituting polyunsaturated fats for saturated fats will reduce both
    total and LDL (bad cholesterol) but do have the potential to also lower
    HDL (good cholesterol) levels when consumed in large amounts. That is
    why they should be consumed to no more than 10% of total calories each
    day.
  • Examples: Margarine, soybean, safflower,
    sunflower, cottonseed and corn oils, pumpkin and sunflower seeds, most
    salad dressings and mayonnaise. These fats stay liquid at room and
    refrigerator temperatures.

Monounsaturated Fat – up to 20% of total calories
  • Why? What does this mean?: Most desirable
    source of fat in the diet. Substituting monounsaturated fats for
    saturated fats will reduce both total and LDL cholesterol while sparing
    the reduction of HDL cholesterol.
  • Examples: Olive and canola oils, nuts, nut
    butters and oils (e.g. peanut butter, almond oil), avocados and olives.
    These fats stay liquid at room temperature but solidify slightly when
    placed in the refrigerator.

Total Fat – 25% – 35% of total calories
  • Why? What does this mean?: All of the fat you
    consume on a daily basis should not exceed 35% of total calories.
    Research to date indicates that the lowest incidence of heart disease in
    many regions and cultures such as the Mediterranean region consume
    approximately 25%-35% of total fat from calories each day. But keep in
    mind these diets contain the greatest percentage of fat calories from
    mono and polyunsaturated fats.
  • Examples: All of the sources of fat noted above.

Dietary Cholesterol – less than 200 milligrams each day
  • Why? What does this mean?: Excesses in dietary
    cholesterol have been linked to increases in coronary heart disease.
    Consuming less than 200 milligrams per day is a prudent attempt at
    lowering your risk.
  • Examples: Cholesterol comes from two sources –
    that which your body creates and that which is found in animal products
    (meat, poultry, fish, egg yolks and dairy contain dietary cholesterol).
    Choose reduced fat or lean sources of animal products to help reduce
    your dietary cholesterol intake.

Carbohydrates – 50% – 60% of total calories
  • Why? What does this mean?: Carbohydrates are
    the building blocks of a heart-healthy diet. Choose complex
    carbohydrates (instead of refined ones with white flour) to get the
    maximum nutritional benefit from these foods.
  • Examples: Whole grain or oat based breads,
    crackers, pastas and cereals, other whole wheat/grain based flour
    products; brown or wild rice; couscous, quinoa, barley, buckwheat;
    lentils, split peas and beans; fruits and vegetables.

Fiber – 20-30 grams per day
  • Why? What does this mean?: Dietary fiber,
    specifically the viscous (soluble) form, is associated with a decrease
    in cholesterol and contributes to a host of other health benefits.
  • Examples: All of the above complex carbohydrate
    food sources. Aim for a minimum of 10 or more grams of viscous
    (soluble) fiber each day by increasing oats, barley, lentils, split
    peas, beans, fruits and vegetables. Aim for 8 or more servings from
    fruits and vegetables daily, eat legumes like beans or lentils at least 3
    times a week and choose only unrefined flour based products.

Protein – Approximately 20% of total calories
  • Why? What does this mean?: Dietary protein can
    come from both plant and animal sources and is an essential nutrient to
    good health. The problem is, many protein sources (especially animal
    sources) contain a lot of saturated fat and cholesterol so choose your
    protein sources wisely.
  • Examples: Major sources of protein in the diet:
    beef, veal, pork, fish, chicken, legumes like lentils and beans, dairy
    products, nuts, seeds and soy foods.

Total Calories – balance energy intake with output to achieve or maintain a desirable body weight
  • Why? What does this mean?: Excessive calories,
    regardless of the source, results in weight gain. Excessive weight gain
    over time can result in obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension,
    joint problems and a host of other debilitating diseases including
    heart disease.
  • Examples: Aim to consume 4-6 small meals and snacks daily. Avoid skipping meals and eating late at night for optimal weight maintenance.

Margarine enriched plant sterol/stanol esters
  • Why? What does this mean?: Plant sterols are
    substances naturally occurring in plants. They are similar in structure
    to the cholesterol molecule and when ingested, inhibit the cholesterol
    molecule from being absorbed in the small intestine, resulting in a net
    decrease in overall cholesterol.
  • Examples: The NCEP recommend incorporating
    margarine enriched with stanols as an enhancement to therapy prescribed
    by your physician, NOT as a replacement for diet, lifestyle change or
    prescribed lipid-lowering medications. Currently, two stanols are
    available on the market- Benecol® and Take Control®.

You may wonder how it is you can incorporate these
guidelines into your and your families hectic lifestyle. Take the
following steps one day at a time and focus first on the foods in your
diet that are high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Start making simple
substitutions for saturated fats with mono and polyunsaturated fats,
couple this with a focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains, some
physical activity and you are well on your way towards reaching your
nutritional goals. Below is an example of how the TLC guidelines would
be implemented for someone on a 1,800-calorie diet. You may require more
or less calories for weight loss or maintenance, see your registered
dietitian or physician for more information on your caloric needs.
Nutrient For a 1,800-calorie diet
Saturated fat, <7% of calories 14 grams or less per day
Polyunsaturated fat, up to 10% of calories Up to 20 grams per day
Monounsaturated fat, up to 20% of calories Up to 40 grams per day
Total fat, 25% to 35% of calories Between 50 and 70 grams per day
Carbohydrate, 50% to 60% of calories Between 225 and 270 grams per day
Protein, about 15% of calories Around 67 grams per day
Cholesterol Less than 200 milligrams per day
Fiber 20-30 grams per day with a focus on viscous (soluble) fiber

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